The Pet cooling mats use a non-toxic gel that absorbs body heat and dissipates it back into the air through evaporation from the areas of the pad that are not in use. The pets body temperature is reduced slowly by the pressure of it laying on the mat and this works better than the animal laying directly on a cold surface. Over time the temperature of the mat will warm up when the rate of evaporation is slower than the rate of heat absorption. By this stage, the animal will have been sufficiently cooled. For prolonged use, it is best to discontinue use after 3 hours for the mat to recharge itself and allow the excess heat to be released. The mat does not require water, freezing, or electricity to activate the Gel. Great for use in cooling down a pet's body temperature but also to alleviate medical conditions that respond well to cooling.